Most countries were irrationally assemblages of numerous, disunited, and rival ethnic groups out of which it was almost impossible to forge a fundamental sense of nationhood and unity.
Once a set of characteristics is used to describe a group of people, those characteristics are often attributed to all members of the group, thus affecting the behaviour of the people or individual who hold the stereotype, and those who are labelled by a stereotype. It has been argued by Yoshida 72 that the similarity theory only looks at attitudes and personalities, ignoring traits such as economic level and physical condition.
Method Researchers asked participants to read descriptions about two made-up groups Group A and Group B. Steele claims that the stereotypes" of prejudice is the cause of spotlight anxiety, an emotional stress that inhibits a Discuss and evaluate the formation of individual"s performance.
This skill might involve nothing more than remembering some learned definition; but to arrive at a definition on your own requires a close understanding of the thing whose name is being defined.
This supports the theory as the experimenter has rewarded the p by giving them a positive evaluation so the p seeks to adopt the positive feelings that the experimenter displays; operant conditioning.
Stereotype threat occurs when one is in a situation where there is a threat of being judged or treated stereotypically, or a fear of doing something that would inadvertently confirm that stereotype.
Introduce attribution theory This has laid foundations for the attribution theory ATproposed by Heiderwhich attempts to provide an understanding and explanation for how people attribute causes to their own and other people's behaviour.
Since our capacity to process information is limited, our social world needs to be simplified. Introduction Introduce the idea of stereotypes Our social world is very complex and thus presents us with too much information.
Stereotypes may lead to discrimination and prejudice and affect the behaviour of those who create the stereotype and also those who are stereotyped.
It is closer to evaluationonly it neither requires nor expects you to come down on one side of the issue. Define attribution Attribution is how people interpret and explain causal relationships in the social world and society.
You need to make use of background information surrounding that claim or topic. In this course, you will be asked to make use of completed truth-tables for determining validity, and to make use of the method of counter-example to determine invalidity.
Primary states are those state societies that developed in regions where no states existed before.
Participants P"s randomly assigned tne of three roles: When most African countries achieved independence, they had very small armies which constituted little threat and seemed devoid of political ambitions.
To investigate the effect of stereotype threat on performance in a test. An important number of African states were transformed into instruments of colonial rule, especially by the British. A discussion of capital punishment would mention some of the history of the practice, describe how it is carried out, and describe and perhaps offer some evaluation of arguments for and against the practice.
Griffit and Guay also found that onlookers were rated more positively when the p had received a positive evaluation from the experimenter. An important number of African states were transformed into instruments of colonial rule, especially by the British, most notably in the case of the Hausa emirated and the Yoruba city states of Nigeria, the Ashanti in Ghana, the Ganda and other Interlacustrine kingdoms in Uganda, the Lozi in Barotseland, the Tswana chiefdoms, and the Swazi and Lesotho kings.
Researchers concluded that the questions asked confirmed participants" stereotypes of each personality type. This argument sees human society as evolving from tribes or chiefdoms into states through a gradual process of transformation that lets a small group hierarchically structure society and maintain order through appropriation of symbols of power.
A description will list some of the properties or features of a thing or process or event, etc. Yoshida points out that these factors are equally as important to similarities in personalities. Introduce Fritz Heider Heider proposed a theory in which he suggested that we tend to interpret and explain our own behaviour and the behaviour of others by assigning attributes to behaviour.
Game show host - asked to design their own questions Contestant - tried to answer questions Audience member - watched the game show After the game show, audience members were asked to rank the intelligence of the hosts and contestants Results: Lott 94 said that women in some cultures are more focussed on the needs of others rather than receiving reinforcement.
IDA A positive issue brought up with the similarity theory is culture.
Stereotypes are similar to schemas Stereotypes are now also argued to be a schema process that conditions those who hold the stereotype and also those labelled after the stereotype, as they are organized internal representations of individuals and or groups, therefore guiding how people act towards them.
Aronson and Steele Other study you could use for stereotype threat Aim: This supports the similarity theory as it states that people are more likely to form a relationship with others that have similarities; a necessity in forming a romantic relationship.
This belief is biased, because we pay attention to behaviours that confirm what they believe about a group and ignore those behaviours contrary to their beliefs. Neoevolutionism A number of different theories, sometimes connected with some of the processes above, explain state formation in terms of the evolution of leadership systems.
All sorts of things require construction, but in a philosophy course these are usually limited to arguments and truth-tables. Other scholars believe that generalizations are unhelpful and that each case of early state formation should be treated on its own.
See Describeabove. Gender, race, political stance, and personality contribute to the stereotypes we place on others, but they are generally based on race and gender.Evaluate two models or theories of one cognitive process with reference to research studies: 4.
Explain how biological factors may affect one cognitive process Discuss the formation and development of gender roles: 8. Explain cultural variations in gender roles: 9. Describe adolescence: evaluate a student's work value equals appraise but without implying expertness of judgment.
a watercolor valued by the donor at $ rate adds to estimate the notion of placing a. AO1 AO2 AO3 Describe and evaluate two theories of the formation of relationships One theory is ‘The Matching Hypothesis’ which is a social psychological theory based on relationships, proposed by Goffman in Discuss one theory of the formation of relationships (8+16 marks) Outline and evaluate two or more theories of the formation of romantic relationships (8+16 marks) One theory of the formation of romantic relationships is the reward/need satisfaction model, based on the concept of social conditioning.
Discuss two errors in attributions. Introduction. Introduce by stating the underlying principle related within attribution theory; Humans are very social and have a need to understand why things happen and how and why people behave in certain situations.
IB Psychology notes on The sociocultural level of analysis: Sociocultural cognition - Explain the formation of stereotypes and their effect on behaviour.Download